1. What should I do if I miss a birth control pill?
Birth control pills should be taken at the same time every day. If you realize that you have forgotten to take your pill that day, take it as soon as possible. If you do not realize until the next day, take two pills at your normal time. Birth control loses its effect when it is not taken every day, it is recommended to use a backup form of contraception after missing a day.

2. What causes infertility? What treatment options are available for infertility?
There are many causes for infertility, the most common cause of female infertility is lack of or irregular ovulation. The most common causes of male infertility are problems in the testes that affect how sperm are made or how they function. Your treatment options will depend on the cause of your infertility. Lifestyle changes, medication, surgery, or other approaches may be recommended. Some treatments may be combined to improve results.

3. What is a pap test?
During a pap test, also known as a pap smear, loose cells are scraped gently from the opening of the cervix. The cells are then tested for cervical or vaginal cancer, abnormal hormone activity and certain infections or changes that may require treatment.

4. What is dysmenorrhea?
Pain associated with menstruation is called dysmenorrhea.Dysmenorrhea is the most commonly reported menstrual disorder. More than one half of women who menstruate have some pain for 1–2 days each month.There are two types of dysmenorrhea: primary dysmenorrhea and secondary dysmenorrhea. Primary dysmenorrhea is pain that comes from having a menstrual period, or “menstrual cramps. Secondary dysmenorrhea is caused by a disorder in the reproductive system. It may begin later in life than primary dysmenorrhea and the pain tends to get worse, rather than better, over time.

5. What are common signs and symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)?
Irregular menstrual periods, Infertility, Obesity up to 80% of women with PCOS are obese, excess hair growth on the face, chest, abdomen, or upper thighs this condition, called hirsutism,acne that occurs after adolescence and does not respond to usual treatments, Patches of thickened, velvety, darkened skin called acanthosis nigricans ,Multiple small fluid-filled sacs in the ovaries.

6. What is vaginitis?
Vaginitis is an inflammation of the vagina. As many as one third of women will have symptoms of vaginitis sometime during their lives. Vaginitis affects women of all ages but is most common during the reproductive years. To diagnose vaginitis, your health care professional will take a sample of the discharge from your vagina and look at it under a microscope. Your health care professional also may suggest other tests. Treatment will depend on the cause of the vaginitis. Treatment may be either with a pill or a cream or gel that is applied to the vagina.

7. What causes urinary tract infections?
Women’s anatomy makes them prone to getting UTIs after having intercourse. The opening of the urethra is in front of the vagina. During intercourse, bacteria near the vagina can get into the urethra from contact with the penis, fingers, or devices.
Urinary tract infections also tend to occur in women when they begin having sex or have it more often. Using spermicidal or a diaphragm also can cause more frequent UTIs.
Infections also can occur when the bladder does not empty completely. This condition may be caused by blockage (a stone) in the ureters, kidneys, or bladder that prevents the flow of urine through the urinary tract, a narrowed tube (or a kink) in the urinary tract, problems with the pelvic muscles or nerves.

8. What causes back pain during pregnancy?
The main cause of back pain during pregnancy is strain on your back muscles. As your pregnancy progresses, your uterus becomes heavier. Because this increased weight is carried in the front of your body, you naturally bend forward. To keep your balance, your posture changes. You may find yourself leaning backward, which can make the back muscles work harder. Your abdominal muscles support the spine and play an important role in the health of the back. During pregnancy, these muscles become stretched and may weaken. These changes also can increase your risk of hurting your back when you exercise also, to prepare for the passage of the baby through the birth canal, a hormone relaxes the ligaments in the joints of your pelvis. This loosening allows the joints to become more flexible, but it also can cause back pain if the joints become too mobile.

9. How long after early pregnancy loss will it take for me to be able to become pregnant again?
You can ovulate and become pregnant as soon as 2 weeks after an early pregnancy loss. If you do not wish to become pregnant again right away, be sure to use a birth control method. You can use any contraceptive method. If you do wish to become pregnant, there is no medical reason to wait to begin trying again. You may want to wait until after you have had a menstrual period so that calculating the due date of your next pregnancy is easier.

10. When should I make my first prenatal appointment?
If you believe you are pregnant, you should schedule an appointment to confirm at once. Your first prenatal appointment should be within six to eight weeks after your last menstrual cycle.

11. Is travel safe during pregnancy?
For most women, traveling during pregnancy is safe. As long as you and your fetus are healthy, you can travel safely until you are 36 weeks pregnant. The best time to travel is the middle of your pregnancy—between week 14 and week 28. Most common pregnancy problems happen in the first and third trimesters. During midpregnancy, your energy has returned, morning sickness usually is gone, and it is still easy to get around. Travel is not recommended if you have certain pregnancy complications, including preeclampsia, prelabor rupture of membranes, and preterm labor. Travel also may not be a good idea if you are pregnant with more than one fetus.

12. What is a pre-pregnancy care checkup?
The goal of this checkup is to find things that could affect your pregnancy. Identifying these factors before pregnancy allows you to take steps that can increase the chances of having a healthy pregnancy and a healthy baby. During this visit, your health care professional will ask about your diet and lifestyle, your medical and family history, medications you take, and any past pregnancies. Folic acid helps prevent neural tube defects when taken before pregnancy and during pregnancy. It is recommended that all women (even if they are not trying to get pregnant) consume 400 micrograms of folic acid a day by taking a vitamin supplement containing folic acid.

13. What is a glucose screening test and what can the results show?
This screening test measures the level of glucose (sugar) in your blood. A high glucose level may be a sign of gestational diabetes. This test usually is done between 24 weeks and 28 weeks of pregnancy. If you have risk factors for diabetes or had gestational diabetes in a previous pregnancy, screening may be done in the first trimester of pregnancy.

14. What are the benefits of exercise for postpartum women and When can I start exercising after delivery?
Exercise has the following benefits for postpartum women:

It helps strengthen and tone abdominal muscles. It boosts energy. It may be useful in preventing postpartum depression. It promotes better sleep and It relieves stress. If you had a healthy pregnancy and a normal vaginal delivery, you should be able to start exercising again soon after the baby is born. Usually, it is safe to begin exercising a few days after giving birth—or as soon as you feel ready. If you had a cesarean birth or other complications, ask your health care professional when it is safe to begin exercising again.

15. What can I do to feel better if I have nausea and vomiting of pregnancy?
Diet and lifestyle changes may help you feel better. You may need to try more than one of these suggestions, Try eating dry toast or crackers in the morning before you get out of bed to avoid moving around on an empty stomach, drink fluid often, avoid smells that bother you, eat small frequent meals instead of three large meals, try ginger ale made with real ginger, ginger tea made from fresh grated ginger, ginger capsules and ginger candies

If you do vomit a lot, it can cause some of your tooth enamel to wear away. This happens because your stomach contains a lot of acid. Rinsing your mouth with a teaspoon of baking soda dissolved in a cup of water may help neutralize the acid and protect your teeth.

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